Google Scholar Page


2020. Shephard, Mark & Braby, Daniel . “ Questions to the PM versus questions by the PM: an examination of the state and nature of ‘Punch and Judy’politics during PMQs at Westminster.” Journal of Legislative Studies 26(1, February): 27–46.


2020. Shephard, Mark & Braby, Daniel. “ PMQs: examining questions addressed by the Prime Minister to the Opposition.” London School of Economics: Politics & Policy Blog .

2020. Shephard, Mark & Braby, Daniel. “ Constitutional Implications of COVID-19: Operation of PMQs* pre and post-COVID-19.” House of Lords Constitution Committee Inquiry into the Constitutional Implications of COVID-19 .

Working Papers

Braby, Daniel & Shephard, Mark. “Bringing in the Constituents: The Role of Institutional Constraints and Incentive Structures in Driving Constituency Focus in Parliamentary Speech”

Braby, Daniel & Ludwicki-Ziegler, Sebastian. “Representation, Personalisation and Politeness in Minister’s Questions: A Comparison of Westminster & Holyrood”